Granovetter Granovetter, M. The strength of weak ties. The American Journal of Sociology , 78 6 : — Storper Storper, M. Society, community, and economic development. Studies in Comparative International Development , 39 4 : 30 — Indeed, there is a weakness in bridging networks, too. Falleth , Falleth, E. In Networks and institutions in natural resource management , Edited by: Rydin, Y. Cheltenham : Edward Elgar. If sustainable development SD is to be achieved, however, action for sustainability needs to be taken widely — crossing over community boundaries — and for that, the roles played by bridging networks need to be combined with bonding networks' solidarity, thus echoing Storper's Storper, M.
In order to close the conceptual gap in describing the cross-sectoral, cross-scale horizontal and vertical linkages that are involved in many partnerships, Rydin and Holman Rydin, Y.
Re-evaluating the contribution of social capital in achieving sustainable development. Local Environment , 9 2 : — In differentiating the three types they considered the scale at which SC operates, the boundaries involved, the role of place and territory, the nature of the linkages present, and the kind of actors involved and the sectors where they operate. The type of linkage involved is horizontal for bonding and bridging capital, and vertical and horizontal for bracing capital.
An important role played by the vertical dimension of SC was pointed out by Woolcock Woolcock, M. The place of social capital in understanding social and economic outcomes. Bright ideas: social capital — the bonds that connect. Compared to linking SC, the notion of bracing SC suggests connections between people who have ties with various groups — formal or informal, across sectors, across government levels, or localities. Each individual in a bracing network is connected on the basis of a trust relationship that acknowledges others' ability and efficiency in putting across messages to various networks, and the existence of a bracing SC network in a region implies a great potential for mobilising many people in various networks for sustainable regional community building.
The hypothesis for this investigation was: SC accumulation makes a difference in the progress towards sustainability. It was examined using interviews, document analysis, a questionnaire survey, regression analysis, and network analysis.
In the next section the process of SC accumulation, especially the role played by bracing SC, is examined through a qualitative investigation of activities for sustainability in Shiga over the last four decades. This is followed by a quantitative investigation of the relationship between SC and sustainability achievement. View all notes and a population of 1. There were two reasons for selecting this prefecture.
Recent drastic changes in Lake Biwa bio-communities, with special attention to exploitation of the littoral zone. Geo Journal , 40 1 : 63 — I therefore presumed that there must have existed some kind of systems or networks that act to preserve the culture. As citizens participating in this movement learned more about the causes of the problem, and came to reflect upon their lifestyle with its extensive use of synthetic detergents, the Soap Movement gained strength, and as a result facilitated the enactment of an ordinance by the prefectural government prohibiting the sale and use of synthetic detergents containing phosphate.
This in turn influenced the national policy on water quality management. Within the Soap Movement, collective action occurred in various stages. The key to achieving collective action in terms of co-working, joint strategy development, and eventual changes in resource use is, according to Rydin , Rydin, Y. Drawing on these ideas, I analysed the process of SC accumulation in the development of the Soap Movement in Shiga, and examined the extent to which Rydin's Rydin, Y.
I produced Figure 1 by examining the SC flow leading to the collective action. The 37th Environmental System Research.
Hikone: The University of Shiga Prefecture. In this analysis, the forms taken by SC were premised to be the ones proposed by Coleman Coleman, J.
The terms in the figure are ones used by Rydin , Rydin, Y. Bold plain shows the types of SC operating at different stages starting from the bottom and italics indicate their functions. The story of the Soap Movement based on Figure 1 is as follows: Knowledge about the incidence of diaper rash and eczema was widespread in Shiga in the early s in labour-union and agricultural-cooperative wives' groups and this knowledge was communicated to cooperative associations concerned about the pollution of the lake, and gradually the problem was commonly framed through communication as ascribable to synthetic detergents.
The International Journal of Justice and Sustainability
This became an opportunity for the Shiga Prefectural Government, which was searching for ways to deal with the eutrophication of Lake Biwa. The Soap Forum set up by the prefectural government brought together groups concerned about the condition of Lake Biwa and a strategy was jointly developed at the Forum based on knowledge acceptable to all the parties participating.
Consumer study groups, created by the prefectural government from , housewives' groups, cooperatives, community groups and others that shared the desire to protect Lake Biwa all got together through a sense of obligation, mutuality, and reciprocity and supported, to some extent, by relationships of trust; each group had its own aims Endo Endo, H. Sekken undou ni okeru shou-soshiki dantai ni kansuru kousatsu [Consideration of various organisations involved in the Soap Movement].
Kenkyuu Kihou , 6 1 : 59 — In the meantime, financial resources provided by the prefectural government to the Soap Forum, later renamed the Lake Biwa Forum, helped the campaign to continue until its final success with the enactment of the Eutrophication Control Ordinance in by the prefectural government's regulatory power. Figure 1.
The dynamics of SC accumulation leading to collective action. Keywords used by Rydin Rydin, Y. As a result of being given a formal place to voice their concerns and ideas, the participants, mainly housewives, actively approached experts for information and formed their own opinions Mrs M, Lake Biwa Forum. Housewives were definitely empowered by gaining more knowledge and communicating it, adjusting their understanding through collective learning.
So I even wished from time to time they'd studied more. Yokoyama Yokoyama, M. Revaluation of the Lake Biwa Soap Movement — as practice of ecological feminism. Gijutsu Manejimento Kenkyu [Technology management research], 4, 23— Compared to this, increasing people's participation in more local citizen initiatives to achieve sustainability is much more difficult.
Ensuring that goals or values are shared within a community which is a mixture of old and new residents, or between different communities, seems to be the hardest part in network building and generating SC to work together. Machi-zukuri as a new paradigm in Japanese urban planning: reality or myth?
Japan Forum , 14, — Shimomae, Aneya Lane, Kyoto. The theory of communicative action: vol 1 , transl. London: Heinemann. Drawing on Habermas, Healey , Healey, P. Collaborative planning: shaping places in fragmented societies , London : Macmillan. Thus Figure 1 , which describes the dynamics of SC accumulation for collective action, building on networks with other groups by going through the process of common problem framing, knowledge sharing, and joint strategy formation to achieve a shared goal also explains the process of SC accumulation in the development process of local citizens' projects for sustainability in which collective action comes about in a gradual manner.
After the Soap Movement in Shiga, BSCGs developed projects based upon their thoughts as to what needed to be done to build a sustainable future for their community. This GPN system was gradually adopted in many other localities in Japan as well as other countries. Mrs A. She also started the Nanohana rapeseed Zero-Waste Project, which not only produces rapeseed oil for deep frying but also collects the waste oil from households and restaurants to manufacture soap or biodiesel fuel. This project eventually spread to municipalities in 41 of Japan's 47 prefectures.
Some scholars note that SC can be accumulated in the process of capacity building, and that this also provides opportunities for social relationships Healey Healey, P. Collaborative planning in perspective. Planning Theory , 2 2 : — Governing sustainable cities , London : Earthscan. As an effective way of accomplishing capacity building, citizen participation or collaboration with stakeholders is suggested Skinner Skinner, S. Building community strengths: a resource book on capacity building , London : CDF.
Based on the observation made by Ostrom , Ostrom, E.
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The number of people who appeared in the List of Key Persons was From this list, the names of people who were mentioned by only one person were eliminated to remove any possibility of biased nominations, and this produced a list of 69 individuals and a list of 55 projects. These 69 people represent those who have been active in working with other individuals for the same or similar goals. Cooper, T. Citizen-centered collaborative public management. Public Administration Review, 66 S1 , 76 - Building community capacity to engage government: Reflections of nonprofit leaders on post-Katrina New Orleans.
Diaz-Kope, L. Collaboration processes and institutional structure: Reexamining the black box. International Journal of Public Administration, 38, - Eggleston, J. Land subsidence and relative sea-level rise in the southern Chesapeake Bay region: U.
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Geological Survey Circular, Gray, B. Conditions facilitating interorganizational collaboration. Human Relations, 38, - Irvin, R. Citizen participation in decision making: Is it worth the effort? Public Administration Review, 64, 55 - Keast, R. Getting the right mix: Unpacking integration meanings and strategies. International Public Management Journal, 10, 9 - Lynnhaven River NOW. Annual report Virginia Beach, VA : Author. Margerum, R. A typology of collaboration efforts in environmental management. Environmental Management, 41, - McNamara, M. Exploring interactions during multiorganizational policy implementation: A case study of the Virginia Coastal Zone Management Program.
The Case for Grassroots Collaboration: Social Capital and Ecosystem Restoration at the Local Level
UMI No. Struggling to untangle the web of cooperation, coordination, and collaboration: A framework for public managers. International Journal of Public Administration, 35, - Journal of Nonprofit Management, 17 1 , 42 - Multiple-sector partnerships and the engagement of citizens in social marketing campaigns: The case of Lynnhaven River NOW.
Virginia Social Science Journal, 45, 1 - Moore, E. A typology of collaborative watershed groups: Citizen-based, agency-based, and mixed partnerships. Society and Natural Resources, 16, - Morris, J. The case for grassroots collaboration: Social capital and ecosystem restoration at the local level. Lanham, MD : Lexington Books.