Eisenhower would never move directly to break the power of the British and their American partners, but in JFK, that enemy faction now saw a new, more threatening challenger arise on the American scene. Going Head to Head. Who now remembers how John Kennedy first shook up politics and became world famous?
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He spoke to the U. That speech, and the reaction to it, put Kennedy in the kind of public spotlight Abraham Lincoln had stepped into when he debated Stephen Douglas over slavery, a century before. But Kennedy said imperial troops could never prevail over rebels representing the hopes of the native population.
He chaired the Senate Subcommittee on United Nations Affairs—and he had worked out the July 2 speech in personal cooperation with the Algerian rebel leadership. He stressed that he had long criticized U. He attacked the reigning axiom that every other interest must be sacrificed to the anti-Communist Cold War.
None of these explanations which seek to make outsiders the real agents of the Algerian rebellion carries much conviction any longer, … as shown [by] attempts to suppress … critical newspaper and public comment….
If we are to secure the friendship of the Arab, the African, and the Asian—and we must, despite what Mr. No, the strength of our appeal … lies in our traditional and deeply felt philosophy of freedom and independence for all peoples everywhere. Kennedy inserted into this speech a remarkable historical clue.
The Sultan afterwards credited FDR with having ignited his and other nationalist movements for self-rule. The Kennedy speech electrified African nationalists. A stream of African, Arab, and Asian leaders came to confer with the young Senator, whom they wanted to see elected as the next U. S President. By the Algerian Arab rebels provoked the most savage, Hitler-style repression, torture, and assassination by these French forces, throwing both Algeria and France into chaos.
Charles de Gaulle came out of retirement to solve the great national crisis. He created a new, Fifth Republic, became President, and led the country out of the disaster of futile British-aligned imperialism and permanent war. Throughout this period, the Cold War had grown increasingly dangerous. Soviet forces crushed the Anglo-American-encouraged revolt in Hungary. The nuclear arms race intensified after the Soviets rocketed the first satellite, Sputnik, into Earth orbit in In an Age of Dread, the New Frontier.
Alliance for Progress
Senator Kennedy announced his Presidential candidacy on January 2, It was shot down; its pilot was captured and confessed his mission on May 1, deeply embarrassing Eisenhower and collapsing the Eisenhower-Khrushchov summit meeting. Khrushchov lashed out at the United States and disinvited Eisenhower from his planned June visit to Moscow. Kennedy meanwhile won Democratic primary elections, famously taking West Virginia May 10, on his way towards a November final-election victory.
The NATO partners hastened to pre-empt any serious alteration in global arrangements. In January, , Congo nationalist leader Patrice Lumumba had declared the independence of Congo from the rule of Belgium. Days later, the Democratic Party nominated Kennedy for President. On September 14, the elected Congolese government was forcibly overthrown by Belgian military and anti-nationalist paramilitary forces sponsored by the British power center in Katanga and their CIA partners.
Prime Minister Lumumba was kidnapped, escaped, and was repeatedly hemmed in by his would-be assassins. In October , Gen. Lyman Lemnitzer was appointed chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Lemnitzer and Dulles meanwhile proceeded with secret arrangements for an invasion of Cuba and the overthrow of Fidel Castro. His rebel movement had taken power in Cuba in , and Castro had confiscated foreign-owned properties, including the plantations of the Dulles company, United Fruit.
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The Russians had then given Castro military aid against an expected U. Russian military personnel were on the island. An invasion might lead to shooting between the two great powers, both now armed with nuclear weapons a thousand times as deadly as the Hiroshima bomb, and both exploding them in open-air tests. The American public was then widely debating the doomsday threat. In June , two veteran Washington journalists had issued a startling book about the U.
John Kennedy was elected President on November 8, He would have ten weeks to plan a government, before his January 20, inauguration. Seeking to take office and get some kind of start without provoking open insurrection from the Anglo-American establishment, Kennedy announced that Allen Dulles would stay on at the helm of the CIA, and J.
Edgar Hoover would remain at the FBI. But JFK also brought in people intensely loyal to his promises of a new direction. His brother Robert, who had been by his side since the anti-imperial tour, would ride shotgun as attorney general. Daphne Park, reportedly gave the signal for the forces that the Anglo-Americans had assembled, and Congo head of state Patrice Lumumba was assassinated in a remote location to which he had been kidnapped.
President was not notified of the plan, nor was he even informed, until two months later February 13 , that the murder had even occurred. He warned:.
Introductory Segment from Kennedy Library & Museum Rededication Film () | JFK Library
In the councils of government, we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence … by the military-industrial complex. The potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and will persist. We must never let the weight of this combination endanger our liberties or democratic processes. We should take nothing for granted. Only an alert and knowledgeable citizenry can compel the proper meshing of the huge industrial and military machinery of defense with our peaceful methods and goals, so that security and liberty may prosper together. President John F.
And yet the same revolutionary beliefs for which our forebears fought are still at issue around the globe…. He awakened in young people, especially, a passion to improve the world. Colonial-sector leaders already knew him better than most Americans, and were thrilled at the suddenly enhanced prospects for progress. Kwame Nkrumah arrived in Washington March 8, , becoming the first foreign head of state to visit President Kennedy.
Regime Change. Allen Dulles now pressed upon the President the plan he and General Lemnitzer had concocted to overthrow Fidel Castro. Kennedy was told that Cuban exiles would invade and do the fighting, not U.
JFK and the World Oligarchy
Dulles warned that if the plan were not approved, armed and dangerous exiles could be smoldering in Florida, directing their anger at the President. Seeing Castro as a brutal dictator close to American shores, and being as yet unsure of his own Presidential leadership, Kennedy approved the plan on April 4, He specified that U.
But Dulles and Lemnitzer planned to compel Kennedy to throw in U. Just five days before the Cuban invasion went ahead, a Dulles representative in Spain assured French generals that the United States would recognize their new regime if they would overthrow President de Gaulle and install a military dictatorship to stop Algerian independence. Confronting Kennedy, Dulles, and Lemnitzer demanded that he bring in naval and air cover to save the operation, but he kept his resolve not to allow it.
Just in case curious Congressmen might meddle into the affair, Gen. Thousands of paratroopers were stationed not far from Paris, preparing to move on the Presidential palace.
Stephen G. Rabe
De Gaulle appealed to the French people to support him and save their country. Millions of French citizens blocked the coup plotters with strikes and other pro-government actions. Directly countering Dulles, President Kennedy contacted his French counterpart and pledged full support, including military assistance if de Gaulle wanted it.
Soustelle was … in Washington [last December. All this has increased the feeling in the White House that the CIA has gone beyond the bounds of an objective intelligence-gathering agency and has becomethe advocate of men and policies that have embarrassed the administration. Dulles left the CIA in November , but within a month or two he was back at the center of the ruling group at the Agency, giving and receiving briefings several times a week.
American opinion rallied behind Kennedy after he took public responsibility for the Bay of Pigs disaster. Resolving to put his own stamp on the Presidency, Kennedy announced to Congress on May 25, the dramatic goal of sending an American safely to the Moon before the end of the decade. But with the news from Cuba, the Congo, and Paris, murder was in the air in Washington.
Journalists Fletcher Knebel and Charles Bailey were working on an urgent follow-up to their book on nuclear war. Knebel picked up the scent of madness that permeated the Pentagon. Shall Mankind Die? Lemnitzer presented his plan for a surprise, preemptive nuclear attack on the Soviet Union, to take place in Lemnitzer cautioned that if all-out nuclear war were begun a year earlier, it would not be as effective in utterly annihilating Russia; he said that only by would the United States have absolute superiority in delivery systems, at which point the Soviets would possess no real ability to retaliate.
The President asked Lemnitzer how long Americans would have to remain in fallout shelters after the rival country was exterminated.